صفحه رسمی وزارت امور داخله
د کورنیو چارو وزارت رسمی پاڼه
Ministry of Interior Affairs, Afghanistan
Afghan National Police Strategy
1. Foreword by the Minister of Interior Affairs
The purpose of the Afghan National Police Strategy (ANPS) is to provide strategic guidance for the continued development and operational capability of the Ministry of Interior (MoI) to meet the current and future challenges of stabilization and security of our nation. It is the second in the series of strategic planning documents and will be followed by the National Police Plan (NPP). This strategy specifies the objectives for continued development of the police, law enforcement activities and associated systems.
This document is consistent with applicable Afghan laws and national level documents including the Afghan Constitution, Police Law, National Security Policy (NSP), and Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS) to outline the missions, roles and responsibilities of the MoI. I have determined my priorities for the next five years. From those priorities a number of objectives will be defined. In order to achieve those objectives, Deputy Ministries will identify tasks and milestones that will be incorporated into subordinate operational plans.
Minister of Interior Affairs
2. National Interests
Afghanistan’s national interests are a collection of beliefs, accepted values and priorities that are related to the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of our country, the security, welfare, development and prosperity of our nation, the rule of law in our society and the stability of our state. Our national interests and the threats to them require the following responses:
• Reinforce and improve the country’s security organizations in accordance with current security requirements. Provide public safety and civil order, law enforcement, border coverage, geopolitical and strategic requirements all balanced with domestic resources and the cooperation of friendly countries.
• Counter the threat from Al-Qaida, insurgents, terrorists and organized criminal groups in collaboration and cooperation with the international community or independently.
• Implement the Peace and Reintegration Program in order to maintain peace through a political process.
• Collect weapons and ammunition from irresponsible individuals and illegal armed groups.
• Eliminate corruption all over the country.
• Conduct a strong campaign of law enforcement against the cultivation, production, and trafficking of drugs.
• Continually reinforce and develop Afghan governmental jurisdiction.
• Provide security for political, economic, social and cultural institutions, as well as civil society and the private sector of the country in accordance with applicable Afghan laws.
• Provide opportunities for national and international investment and commerce.
• Improve relations with the international community based on internationally accepted standards, and reinforce the current position of Afghanistan in the United Nations.
• Respond to public requirements, protect public and government assets, provide security for Afghan citizens, and create capacities in order to meet requirements during natural and human made disasters.
• Create and sustain an enabling environment for the realization and advancement of the human rights of our people as enshrined in the Afghan Constitution and for the development and poverty reduction of the nation.
• Protect the rights of our people and ensure that all our citizens are equal before the law.
Assessment of the Internal Security Threat
There has been a significant change in the nature of the threats to the internal security of Afghanistan over the last four years. This change has caused the balance of police missions to change and has added significantly to the daily security force requirements. In addition to normal criminal threats similar to most nations, such as poverty, illiteracy, and porous borders, Afghanistan faces five major security threats:
• The externally supported terrorist threat and armed opposition to the Government.
• Unlawful governance and corruption.
• The illegal drug trade.
• Organized crime.
• Illegally armed groups.
All of these threats have a considerable negative impact on the resources and capabilities of the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF).
There are 34 provinces in Afghanistan with an active police presence. Of those only 17 are considered to be low threat provinces without any significant terrorist activity. Five provinces are considered to be medium threat with some terrorist activity that can normally be handled by the local police. Twelve provinces are high threat areas where daily combat activities are occurring against terrorist forces. There are at least nine districts where actual governmental control is in question.
In recent years terrorism has been a significant threat. Key to this threat has been the sanctuaries of the terrorists across the borders from Afghanistan and their ability to recruit, train, equip, finance and organize cross-border operations. Additionally, the success of coalition forces against terrorists in Iraq has caused a shift of international terrorism resources towards Afghanistan. Terrorist numbers have grown, they have received additional external support and their equipment and tactical capability are also improving. They are adapting their techniques and procedures for the specific areas within which they operate and their technology is equal to the defending forces.
A significant part of the financial resources of the terrorists comes from the production and trafficking of narcotics, as well as the extortion of people. The terrorists are heavily involved in protecting and supporting the illegal production, sale and distribution of narcotics. These forces are organized, trained and equipped. They have access to sanctuaries and external sources of funding. Afghanistan is the number one narcotics producing country in the world and significant efforts were made to reduce production and trafficking. This effort will continue as a major national security undertaking until narcotic production and trafficking are eliminated.
The Afghan National Police (ANP) continues to suffer greater casualties than the Afghan National Army (ANA). In Solar Year 1388 (2009), 1,017 national policemen died as martyrs and 1,741 national policemen were wounded. Since the beginning of SY 1389 (21 March 2009 to 19 February 2010) there were 873 ANPpersonnel martyred and 1,821 police personnel were wounded.
The significantly increased threat to the internal security of Afghanistan has had multiple effects on the mission, resources and tactics of the ANSF.
Significant Police Requirements:
• The ANP are facing terrorist groups armed with heavy weapons including machine guns, missiles, rocket launchers and mortars. They also have the technical capability to make and use improvised explosive devices. The police must be more capable to counter these capabilities.
• Terrorist tactics focus predominantly on the police rather than the international military and ANA, because the police patrol in small groups using more predictable patrol patterns, and they do not have the same capacity to respond with a sufficient quick reaction force. This has caused the police to train and prepare their patrols in a manner similar to the military while also improving communications and cooperation with military forces in the area.
• Police personnel are being targeted and killed while commuting between stations, or to and from their homes. This has caused even routine transient movement to require precise planning and increased security. The transportation requirements for moving forces to react to immediate threats are much greater than required in a stable environment.
• With increased terrorist activity, many policemen are dying of wounds because the local police units do not have the necessary medical expertise and evacuation capacity.
• Most roads in Afghanistan are not paved. This provides the enemy an easy environment for deploying mines and explosive devices. Counter mine and counter ambush training, equipment and weapons are current critical requirements for all police, not just special units.
• Terrorist forces have concentrated much of their activity on the highways and other transportation infrastructure in Afghanistan. This has required a significant increase in security forces, technical and tactical requirements for basic highway security.
• The lack of a record and registration system of births and deaths of Afghan citizens (in accordance with nationally and internationally accepted norms), national identification cards (Tazkira) and passports creates opportunities for foreign intelligence operatives, as well as internal and external terrorists.
• In order to enhance operational capabilities, the ANP must continually exploit advances in technology and constantly monitor training requirements, particularly in the areas of intelligence, crime prevention and forensics.
• The international community has provided much assistance to the ANP with the added assistance of multiple agencies and advisors, all of which must be provided security. This increased security requirement is in addition to the normal operational requirements of the ANP.
• The levels of security required for local governance and justice institutions are almost double what they might be in peacetime. This includes protecting government offices, schools, clinics and reconstruction projects including factories and public infrastructure, aid organizations and their employees.
• The ANP is to many the face of the Government. The police must be seen as a culturally unified yet ethnically diverse organization, representing the people we serve. We must never allow external forces to drive a wedge between our people.
• The threat varies across the country. This requires some police to constantly operate at a very high tempo because of the high level of threat, while others operate in relatively stable areas. A newly established rotation policy has been approved to ensure all ANP personnel share the dangers and rigors of counter insurgency duties. It is important that this policy is now implemented.
• The border police face major problems in maintaining the security of the borders because of the lengthy borders of the country, a series of recent natural disasters, and the lack of required capabilities. The key to solving these issues is enhancing the border police capabilities.
Problems within the Afghan National Police
• Corruption in the police force directly affects poor people and never goes unnoticed by the public. This unfortunate phenomenon erodes the trust and confidence of the people, which the police must earn in order to become a valued institution. Also, corruption in the police force is a betrayal of the cause for which so many of our brave brothers and sisters in police uniform have made the ultimate sacrifice. The police, together with the judicial system, are responsible for the enforcement of the law and must set an example by eradicating all forms of corruption within the MoI.
• Generally, the ANP can sometimes behave in a militaristic manner, which can intimidate the population. The police should serve the people and act in a manner that ensures their cooperation, trust and respect, using only legal, proportionate and necessary force.
• Ethnic and gender imbalance in the police affects relationship-building between the police and society. Therefore, ethnic and gender balance should be considered when recruiting, training, assigning and promoting all ANP.
• Current police activities often focus on counter insurgency and seldom on traditional policing functions. A clear, transparent and balanced delineation should be made between the police departments dedicated to counter insurgency, and those charged with law enforcement and civilian policing.
• The police organization is weak and must be reorganized into coherent pillars, with clear mandates and interoperability capabilities organized and developed. In parallel, a strong command, control, and communication structure should be implemented at all levels of the police.
• If major requirements of the national police in terms of personnel, training and education, equipment, facilities and installations are not fulfilled promptly before the departure of international security forces, this will create security gaps and the country will face internal security problems.
• The poverty and illiteracy of most of Afghanistan’s people is one of the major difficulties to enforcing the law . This creates a lack of security. Gradually resolving these problems will help maintain public order and stability.
• The police recruitment and training processes have focused on quantity, rather than quality training at the patrolmen level rather than leadership development, which resulted in a lack of professionalism. There is a need to improve professional skills, leadership capability and raise the literacy rate within the police.
• Criminal processing is based on information contained in statements instead of that of evidence collection. Investigations need to be conducted in accordance with the rule of law, democratic values and human rights. Continuity and collaboration between police and prosecutors is essential.
The conclusion of our threat analysis clearly shows that the ANSF must be organized, trained, equipped and supported differently than other nation’s forces. Although these differences are currently necessary, they will not be required for the long term vision of the fully developed ANSF. The execution of this National Police Strategy must accommodate the crucial challenges of today’s threat while building for the long term end-state of the ANSF.
4. Vision and Strategic Priorities of the Ministry of Interior Affairs
Minister of Interior Affairs Vision. In five years the people of Afghanistan will consider their police to be a valued institution which is honest, accountable, brave, impartial, and striving to create a secure and lawful society.
Our long term vision is that the ANP will uphold the Constitution of Afghanistan and enforce the prevailing laws of the country to protect the rights of all people of Afghanistan. The police will perform their duties in a professional, non-discriminatory, accountable and trustworthy manner.
Mission. The ANP is primarily responsible for maintaining civil order and law enforcement. The police will work with the people to actively combat crime and disorder (including terrorism and illegal armed activity); prevent the cultivation, production and smuggling of narcotics; and fight corruption. The police will ensure the sovereignty of the State and protect its borders.
Civilian Policing. As part of the phased stabilization of Afghanistan with the assistance of the international community, the Afghan National Police are committed to seeking the highest standards in civilian policing in order to guarantee the rights of all Afghan citizens under the Constitution.
Civilian policing is a crucial strategic concept that is based on intelligence led, proactive community collaboration. It is aimed at controlling crime, reducing the fear of criminal activity, improving the quality of life of all Afghans, and enhancing the legitimacy of police services.
Civilian policing requires greater accountability of police, greater involvement of citizens, and greater concern for human rights.
Institutional Reform: The Ministry of Interior Affairs plays a crucial role in establishing good governance and the rule of law throughout Afghanistan. As the primary institution responsible for the delivery of police services to the people of Afghanistan, it is imperative that the MoI be professional, accountable and free from corruption.
To achieve this, the Ministry has embraced the reform process by initiating and leading the Institutional Reform Working Group. The Institutional Reform Working Group is mandated to pursue four objectives:
• Work towards creating a clear differentiation between the political elements of the Ministry and those that are operational;
• Create a framework for the independent civilian oversight of policing;
• Develop an effective internal affairs mechanism.
• Create and implement an enforceable code of conduct.
Peace and Reintegration Program: This program is based on the decision of the national peace jirga in early Solar Year 1389 and began its work according to Decree Number 43 of the Office of the President of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, dated August 4, Solar Year 1389.
The reintegration program is going to be implemented to support national unity and sovereignty and its aim is to maintain peace all over the country through negotiations and political collaboration.
The national police tasks in this program will be organized separately by roles and procedures.
In support of the national interest, the strategic priorities of the Ministry of Interior for the Solar Years 1390 to 1395 are as follows:
1. Training and Education.
2. Develop police leadership.
3. Anti corruption.
4. Improve the living standards and working conditions of the police.
5. Review and modify the tashkil.
6. Develop a system of rewards and punishments.
5. MOI Strategic Objectives SY 1390-1395
1. Training and education
Improving and developing training and education is one of the major pillars for improving capacities and capabilities of the national police. This strategic objective can be satisfied by achieving the following:
• All newly recruited police personnel should complete basic training.
• Develop police professional courses within the country.
• Continue and improve the existing training and education processes by reinforcing training and educational standards.
• Accelerate development of the Focused District Development (FDD), Focused Border Development, and associated training and education programs.
• Establish ANP advisory teams to ensure that FDD programs are completed in low-level threat districts through Solar Year 1391. Consider additional ANP support for ISAF advisory and mentoring teams assigned to medium threat areas. Deploy ANP support teams to accelerate the FDD process with the additional support of the international community at the provincial level.
• Send qualified officers and Non Commissioned Officers abroad for specialized training.
• Request the assistance of highly skilled foreign instructors, and assign highly educated Afghan instructors to instruct ANP personnel.
• Increase the capacity and quality of police training courses.
• Implement training and education programs to improve the professional knowledge of police personnel.
• Develop the timeline and curriculum of the basic courses for patrolman based on national standards, and evaluate police force requirements in order to improve the quality of training and education.
• Enhance the literacy of ANP personnel by establishing courses using appropriate standards in coordination with other relevant organizations.
• Develop uniform standards, certifications, and other metrics for appropriate accreditation of all levels of training and education, as authorized by the Training and Education Command.
• Train the ANP in human rights, the legal rights of citizens and how to behave in an ethical manner toward citizens in accordance with Islamic and Afghan values.
• Extend the Kabul City Policing Model within the most important cities in the country.
• Develop anti-riot capability to control and restore public order using the lowest level of force required.
2. Police leadership development:
Focusing on developing the leadership cadre of the police force is considered essential. In order to achieve this the following tasks are considered vital:
• Establish a program for assessing and developing both the current and future leadership cadre within the Afghan police.
• Hold training courses for police personnel in order to reinforce effective leadership and improve the professional skills of the police forces.
• Implement an assignment and reassignment (rotation) policy for all senior and high ranking officers’ positions in order to develop and broaden professional experience.
• Expand and develop the Staff College for high ranking officers and generals to enhance their professional and leadership capacities.
3. Anti corruption
In order to improve effective governance and gain the confidence of the public, eradicating corruption is a priority. The ANP task is to enforce the law and they will only be respected and trusted by the people if they act based on the laws of Afghanistan. The Ministry’s anti-corruption strategy will be based on the following:
• Transparency and accountability with respect to contracts, financial management and logistics.
• Appointments based on merit without discrimination and regard to gender.
• Continued anti-corruption focus on police personnel who manage public assets. This aggressive anti-corruption focus will be implemented under the due processes of international and Afghan law, and taking into consideration the rights of the accused.
• Support and resourcing of the Major Crime Task Force in order to enable them to achieve their mission.
• Build capacity in accordance with the law, MOI policy and rules, and fundamental principles such as merit-based assignment and promotion, as well as sound personnel, accounting, procurement, finance, pay, incentives, weapons, assets, equipment, and accountability management practices. Operational and administrative procedures for fielded police forces and personnel assigned to the MOI are required.
• Corruption can be effectively identified through professional training, public awareness campaigns, and the implementation of recommended programs for mitigating corruption.
• Government intelligence organizations, the MOI Department of the Inspector General, and the Office of the Attorney General will conduct the investigation of corruption cases within MOI. The Major Crimes Task Force is responsible for investigating corruption cases in other government organizations. Corruption cases involving MOI and other government organizations will be prosecuted by the Office of the Attorney General.
• The fight against corruption to gain public confidence, improve citizens’ perception of the ANP and gain the support of the people is important.
• Introduce an independent organization for police oversight and accountability, similar in nature to an ombudsman, will be established to receive and review public concerns about ANP performance.
• The prevention of drug and alcohol abuse by police personnel.
• Increase the capability to respond promptly and fairly to public requests for security, assistance, fighting crime or providing administrative services.
4. Improve the living standards and working environment of the police
Commanders and senior leaders should take permanent responsibility for improving the living conditions of the police. A commission should be established to determine the cost, benefits, and practical ways of improving the quality of life of the police and their families. It will consider and evaluate the proposals below which have financial implications. It should propose a five-year plan for achieving this goal. The commission should be led by senior police and civilian leadership, and international experts. The following actions are proposed, subject to affordability:
• Improve living standards in ANP working offices and checkpoints.
• Improve ANP equipment such as weapons, uniforms, radios, vehicles and other miscellaneous items.
• Provide housing facilities for the police.
• Take proper care of police casualties and families of martyred police.
• Improve the dining facilities of the police.
• Provide medical services for the police and their family members.
• Introduce programs to improve work conditions to enhance retention and motivate individuals to extend their contracts.
• Ensure an adequate police salary to sustain recruitment and provide other incentives and rewards to encourage retention and prevent corruption.
• Promptly distribute pay and other privileges to police personnel
• Reduce the ANP death rate and casualties caused by anti-government attacks by improving force protection safeguards, providing technical vehicles, and conducting intelligence based operations.
• Decrease the ANP death rate by avoiding the deployment of less capable police units to high-threat regions; upgrade tactical training and education; establish an ANP quick reaction capability at regional and; provincial enhance ANP explosive ordnance disposal capabilities and increase ANP access to good health care, where practical.
5. Review and modify the tashkil
In order to improve the quality of services provided by police and to allow development of the structure of the MoI, the following points should be considered:
• Continually review the Tashkil in order to enhance the capacity and capabilities of the ANP to meet their requirements, satisfy security priorities and maintain the correct balance between counter insurgency police, anti-crime police and civilian police.
• With the participation of the international community, establish an ongoing assessment program to determine the feasibility of the desired growth of the ANP tashkil to enhance the security and stability of the Afghan people. Any assessment must be made within the framework of transition and cognizant of the prevailing and predicted security conditions. The focus of these periodic assessments will be as follows:
a. The capacity to meet and sustain projected growth objectives.
b. The ability to fund projected ANP growth objectives from all sources.
c. Whether current tashkil commitments have been met effectively.
d. The precise identification of personnel gaps in current and projected tashkils (by rank, location, type of police, etc.)
• Last year the focus for tashkil growth was on the support pillar. Although growth in this area will continue, the focus in the future will be on those pillars required to meet forecast conditions.
• Improve criminal investigative capabilities by providing sufficient equipment for this purpose and effective investigation, information gathering, records keeping, and reporting systems and training.
• Improve coordination and cooperation between the ANP pillars and Government judicial authorities in support of the Afghan rule of law in the struggle against crime.
• Provide opportunities for Afghan women within the ANP and recruit 5,000 women police during the next five years.
• Increase the recruitment of police from all the tribes and sub-nations of the country.
6. Develop a system of rewards and punishment:
• In order to implement an equitable system of rewards and punishment, the following issues should be focused on:
• Recognize and reward all those ANP personnel who perform well.
• Implement procedures to warn and punish those ANP personnel who misuse their authority, fail to fulfill their duties or meet the standards required of them under Afghan law.
Reinforce accountability among police personnel at all levels.
6. Mission and Roles of the Afghan National Police
Several documents influence and direct the mission and roles of the ANP:
• The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.
• The Afghan Police Law.
• The Afghan National Development Strategy.
• The Afghan National Security Policy.
• The National Threat Assessment.
These documents direct the MoI to form and maintain a police organization that is capable of securing and stabilizing the country. The ultimate objective is to establish a well trusted, efficient ANP capable of establishing security, stability, and public order in accordance with the rule of law.
The ANP is responsible for providing:
• Internal security for the Afghan nation.
• A secure environment for the people to conduct their religious, political, cultural, social and economic activities.
• Protection from criminals and illegal elements.
Police will combat criminals and illegal elements based on the Afghan Constitution, Police Law and other applicable Afghan laws.
The MoI is in the process of reorganizing and reforming the ANP to improve police training, education and overall effectiveness. There are four main pillars of police, two sub pillars and an enabling force as detailed below:
1. Afghan Uniform (Civilian) Police (AU(C)P).
2. Afghan National Civil Order Police (Gendarmerie) (ANCOP (G)).
3. Afghan Border Police (ABP).
4. Afghan Anti-Crime Police (AACP).
Enabling Force: Medical, logistical, administrative, recruitment, training and education, and headquarters.
a. Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF).
b. Afghan Local Police (ALP).
The future structure of the ANP, as directed by the MoI leadership, is identified by the names above, subject to ratification through the legal process.
The precise definition of .missions and roles ensures an effective and professional police force. Specifically, the following missions, roles, duties, responsibilities, tasks and objectives will be accomplished by the ANP:
1. Maintain the rule of law.
2. Prevent and counter terrorist activities.
3. Ensure, maintain or restore civil order and security.
4. Protect the legal rights and freedoms of individuals and society.
5. Deter, prevent, detect, report and investigate crime.
6. Prevent and counter corruption, narcotics, and illegal armed groups.
Police tasks have been described in the Police Law in detail.
Afghan Uniform (Civilian) Police: The AU(C)P consists of the ANP Regional Zones, the Traffic Police and the Fire and Rescue Department. Their specific roles, duties and responsibilities are as follows:
1. Focus on the core functions of policing and providing public services, training and education, as well as equipping this force in order to prevent and detect crime, assure public safety, maintain civil order, protect property and safely control traffic.
2. Maintain the rule of law, adopting an intelligence-led policing model.
3. Respond to emergencies and maintain public safety.
4. With the support of the Afghan Anti-Crime Police (AACP), prevent, promptly detect and investigate minor crime.
5. Secure and preserve evidence, gather and process criminal intelligence,
6. Identify and protect witnesses and victims.
7. Arrest and detain suspects and perpetrators.
8. Build public confidence in the GIRoA.
9. Gather intelligence to support counter insurgency operations.
10. Carry out other general policing duties.
11. Provide fire suppression, prevention and rescue.
12. Ensure safety on the roads, prevent and investigate traffic accidents.
13. Maintain orderly traffic flow, organize traffic affairs and inspect vehicles for safety.
14. Provide public traffic courses to educate drivers on traffic control, traffic rules, and traffic signs and issue driver’s licenses and vehicle registrations.
15. Ensure enforcement of appropriate domestic violence legislation in order to promote familial and community stability in accordance with enlightened Islamic and Afghan family values.
16. Assure adequate security for candidates during elections. Perform according to Independent Election Commission standards and remain impartial during the election process.
Afghan National Civil Order Police (Gendarmerie) (ANCOP(G)). The ANCOP(G) mission is to maintain the rule of law and order utilizing proportionate armed capability. It will be organized geographically into regional brigades and battalions. The ANCOP(G) will be the lead police organization in counter insurgency operations and work in close cooperation with the ABP, AU(C)P and ANA.
Operations conducted by these units should be fully supported by military forces or conducted jointly with the military to support the ‘clear’ phase of counter-insurgency operations. The ANCOP(G) will eventually be the primary police organization in the ‘hold' phase of counter-insurgency operations and will support the AU(C)P.
Their specific roles, duties and responsibilities are:
1. Provide intelligence information and tactical support to the ANA during the ‘shape’ and ‘clear’ phases and be the lead police organization in the ‘hold’ phase of counter-insurgency operations and work in partnership with the ANA and ABP during framework operations.
2. Replace and/or support the AU(C)P in high-threat and unstable areas, during Focused District Development or when required for augmentation purposes.
3. Maintain and restore civil order.
4. Conduct public order operations during sensitive or dangerous civil disturbances and riots.
5. Conduct operations that require a higher level of training and tactics or require a mobile quick reaction force for direct action such as hostage rescues and counter terrorism operations.
6. Support counter narcotics operations and assist in poppy eradication when required.
Afghan Border Police (ABP). The mission of the ABP is to secure and safeguard the national borders and maintain security in the Border Security Zone that extends 50 kilometers into the territory of Afghanistan. Their specific roles, duties and responsibilities are as follows:
1. Safeguard national boundaries against external aggressions.
2. Control the entry and exit of individuals and vehicles at borders and international airports. Ensure personnel have correct documentation.
3. Deter and counter insurgency and criminal activities within the Border Security Zone.
4. Take immediate action against incursions at the border.
5. Ensure the security of international airports and border crossing points.
6. Prevent all types of smuggling (weapons, ammunition, goods, drugs, historical artifacts, human trafficking, etc.)
7. Control the entry and exit of refugees and immigrants.
8. Cooperate with neighboring countries’ police in accordance with agreed treaties.
Afghan Anti-Crime Police (AACP). The AACP comprise the investigative and intelligence police capacities at all levels from the MOI to regional zones, provinces and districts (with the exception of the functions of Inspector General and Internal Affairs). They form one pillar of the ANP and consist of the following branches:
• Counter terrorism.
• Counter narcotics.
• Police Intelligence.
• Criminal Investigation.
• Major Crimes Task Force.
• Police Special Operation Units.
The mission of the AACP is to provide police units with technical police skills not possessed by other members of the police. They will assist in investigations conducted by the offices of the Inspector General and Attorney General.
The role and missions of the AACP are listed below:
1. The Counter Terrorism branch conducts criminal investigations relating to domestic and international terrorism, especially those involving the Taliban, Al Qaida, extremist groups, illegal armed groups and other external groups interfering with Afghanistan’s internal affairs. It is also tasked with managing the Disposal of Illegally Armed Groups program; and oversight or the disbandment of private security companies.
2. The Counter-Narcotics Police of Afghanistan (CNPA) is responsible for collecting intelligence and investigating punishable activities related to the cultivation, smuggling and illegal production of drugs. It also conducts active detection, eradication operations, and interdiction of the flow of narcotics. In addition, arrests of drug traffickers and seizures of illicit drugs by any agency are referred to the CNPA for prosecution.
3. The Department of Police Intelligence plans and directs intelligence collection activities, performs intelligence threat analysis, creates intelligence products, performs target surveillance, conducts counter-intelligence operations and security investigations. Police intelligence also includes collecting information about ANP personnel and administrative organizations who could be involved in corruption, collusion with enemies and criminals, supervision and control of ANP behavior to ensure it complies with the law of the land and to interdict any activities against the national interest. It is also responsible for MoI security programs. Development of intelligence systems, establishment of closer and better relations with the people and responding to their legitimate and lawful demands will increase the capability of the police. Joint counter insurgency operations conducted with other Afghan security organizations and the ANA will be more successful in achieving our objectives when our intelligence systems are enhanced with information provided by the local community. This will further encourage the people to help and support the police in their fight against insurgents, narcotics trafficking and other criminal behavior. The process of Intelligence Led Policing must be implemented within the MoI. The ANP has access to a vast quantity of information which must be processed to enable the authorities to more efficiently utilize resources. This will transform the ANP from a reactive organization to a proactive one by the following actions.
a. Develop and diversify the sources of intelligence in order to assess and anticipate the threat, and to insure that proper plans, programs, training and resources are provided commensurate with enemy capabilities.
b. Implement a process of intelligence gathering, reporting, storing and dissemination within the entire ANP and in coordination with ANA, the National Directorate for Security (NDS) and other international supporting organizations.
c. Develop a proper chain of command, control and communication throughout the ANP. Special focus must be on enhancing police capacity to respond to unforeseen incidents and terrorist attacks. The ultimate goal will be to enable ANP leadership to use the chain of command, delegate responsibility, issue orders, communicate directives and implement both strategic and operational planning.
All intelligence based operations will be planned carefully and strive diligently to reduce unintended civilian casualties, property damage and protect the rights of all Afghans under the Constitution.
4. The Criminal Investigation branch conducts special investigations in fields which require professional expertise such as economic crime (computer crime, illegal investments, contract fraud, bribery, forgery, embezzlement, tax and customs fraud), smuggling (of goods or human trafficking), high level crimes against persons (complex homicides, sex crimes, etc.) or property, juvenile crime, child related crime and ethical crime.
5. The Major Crimes Task Force conducts highly sensitive investigations into crimes, especially kidnapping and corruption cases which may have an impact on the State due to the victim’s or the suspect’s identity (high profile officials, their relatives or foreigners,. It also investigates organized crimes which may destabilize the country. This includes various fields of investigation such as forgery or weapons trafficking.
The Polygraph system will continue to be used, particularly with regard to those police personnel involved with public assets and those accused of corruption.
6. The General Directorate of Police Special Unit (GDPSU) provide specialist tactical capability to support counter insurgent, counter narcotics and counter organized crime activities. This includes the provision of a Crisis Response Unit, Intelligence and Surveillance capabilities, VIP security and judicial security.
7. The Forensics branch provides criminal investigations units with forensics expertise and support including police laboratories, evidence collection and crime scene management.
Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF). The APPF operates throughout the country to protect key infrastructure, facilities, construction projects and personnel, with a special focus on protection from insurgency. It also provides protection for those facilities that donors, international agencies and private sector organizations currently contract private security companies for. This removes the need to employ trained AU(C)P officers in guard positions. The APPF permit more highly trained police resources to focus on providing effective law enforcement. In accordance with Decree Number 62 of the Office of the President regarding the disbandment of private security companies, the APPF will replace these companies.
The creation of this force was subject to the approval by the leadership of Afghanistan and funding provided by the Government of Afghanistan. The APPF is a part of the ANSF under the direct command and control of MoI. The APPF is a regular state security force rather than militia, but does not have a police mandate to investigate crime or arrest suspects.
The MoI has expanded its command and control capabilities to manage and exercise authority over the APPF.
The APPF is funded by the MoI without the use or diversion of funding from the Law and Order Trust Fund Afghanistan (LOTFA).
The MoI has created an APPF Working Group (WG) with international community representatives appointed by the IPCB to supervise and direct the creation of the APPF over the next five years. The WG is to provide advice on, but not limited to, the following areas: APPF funding, command and control structures, size, shape, role, recruitment and vetting, training, equipment and the regulation of private security companies.
Afghan Local police.
In order to ensure the security of local communities and pave the way for reconstruction, development, and political stability, Decree Number 3196 of the Office of the President authorizes establishment of the Afghan Local Police.
• The current tashkil for the ALP is 10,000 personnel and will be developed in the future.
• A code of conduct, incentives, uniforms, responsibilities, and other issues relevant to the ALP have been organized in accordance with approved ALP procedures and based on Afghan law. The ALP program will last for between 2 and 5 years.
• The long term strategy for the ALP program is to provide sustained security, permanent stability, expand governance and increase development in the areas where the ALP will be established.
• The ALP does not have a police mandate to investigate crime or arrest suspects.
Ministry of Interior Enabling Forces.
The police pillars of the MoI are supported by enabling forces. These capabilities include logistical support, medical forces, administrative and personnel support, recruiting personnel, and training personnel. The enabling capabilities must also grow and reform to provide support to the other pillars of the police as they take on increasing responsibility for the security of the Afghan people. These enabling capabilities are a fundamental part of the police.
• The Population and Immigration Registration Department is responsible for implementation of a computerized system for record keeping of the Tazkira (national identification card), birth registration, death, marriage, divorce and citizenship.
A joint framework for the transition process was approved at the Kabul Conference by the Afghan government and the international community on the 22 July 2010. Based on this framework, a joint board for transition (Afghanistan – NATO) was established.
The transition process is a key issue in order to develop security and governance. It requires accurate analysis of security conditions, creation of standards, development of planning systems and gradual implementation of this process.
This process will be implemented by joint working groups at the national level.
ANP Role in Counter Insurgency:
The ANP is at the frontline of the counter insurgency. Few military units can match a good police unit in developing an accurate human intelligence picture of its area of operation. Due to their frequent contact with the populace, police often are the best force for countering insurgent groups supported by the local populace.
Although the roles of the police and military forces in counter insurgency operations may crossover, important distinctions between the two forces exist. If security forces treat insurgents as criminals, the police retain primary responsibility for their arrest, custody, and investigation. Intelligence is critically important in a counter insurgency. Therefore, the ANP, ANA and NDS must share intelligence and information.
Countering an insurgency requires a police force that is visible day and night. The legitimacy of the Government will be questioned if the populace believes that insurgents and criminals control the streets and villages. Well located and protected police stations establish a presence in communities as long as the police do not isolate themselves in those stations. Police presence deters insurgent and criminal activities, provides security to communities and builds support for the government. When police have daily contact with the local populace, they can collect information to counter insurgents.
To maintain peace and stability throughout the country, a focus on the following points is important:
• Improve MOI coordination and cooperation with the Afghan National Army (ANA), National Directorate of Security (NDS), and international community by sharing information, conducting joint operations, and preparing for unexpected events.
• Coordinate with neighboring countries and the international community to maintain the security of Afghan borders and destroy enemy safe havens.
• Reinforce ANCOP to enable them to conduct counter insurgency operations in coordination with the ANA and ensure civil order.
• Continue anti-government clearing operations based on intelligence, poppy field eradication, and the elimination of unauthorized armed militants (the DIAG process).
• Develop the ANP Command and Control System at the national, provincial, and district levels to ensure over time routine implementation of equipping, training, and education initiatives, as well as effective standards and work procedures.
The ANP have critical roles in the counter-insurgency strategic concept of four sequential phases, namely: Shape, Clear, Hold and Build.
Shape: Shaping operations are designed to set the conditions for the successful completion of clear/hold/build operations. Shaping operations consist of information operations, intelligence-surveillance-reconnaissance, disruption and planning activities that improve understanding of the human and physical terrain. These activities are principally focused on collecting information on and preparing for future operations in the area. This type of operation should enable commanders to synchronize efforts in subsequent operations. Shaping operations should have little to no adverse impact on the population. Shaping operations must convince the local populace that the Government intends to protect the population and restore legitimate control of their territory. The lead for this phase will rest with the ANA, but the ANP will offer intelligence information to the maximum extent possible.
Clear: The ‘clear’ phase consists of tactical operations designed to secure a population center. A clearing operation enables freedom of activity for civilians, denies influence from external insurgents and prevents activities by local insurgents or malign actors. In clearing operations, insurgents will be expelled, rendered unable to engage in violent activity, detained, or eliminated. A clearing operation need not be offensive or violent. A normal clearing operation is intended to displace insurgents and malign actors from a populated area or dissuade them from fighting so they cannot harm or intimidate the populace. Clearing operations should be planned and executed in a manner that has the least possible adverse impact on the populace. Clearing operations provide security by virtue of a physical presence that is respectful of and beneficial to the local populace. The ANA has primary responsibility for the clear phase, but the ANCOP(G) may be required to provide police support in joint operations.
Hold: After clearing the area of anti-government elements, the ANSF must then assign sufficient personnel to the cleared area to prevent their return, to defeat any remnants, and to secure the population. Success or failure depends on effectively and continuously securing the populace. Although offensive and stability operations continue, this phase uses defensive operations to secure the population.
In high threat areas the ANCOP(G) or ABP will have primary police responsibility for conducting operations designed to hold areas that have been cleared of anti-government elements. In low to medium threat areas the AU(C)P and ABP will have the primary responsibility for the ‘hold’ phase of counter-insurgency operations. Deterrence and reassurance patrolling must be implemented to prevent enemy activities and infiltration and provide security. This activity must be integrated with the activities of the ANA to ensure that a framework of operations is constructed that best employs the skills of both organizations. If the requirement to return to the ‘clear’ phase emerges the ANA re-engage with the opposing force.
Build: The ‘build’ phase of counter-insurgency operations consists of carrying out programs designed to remove the root causes that led to the insurgency, improve the lives of the inhabitants, and strengthen the Government’s ability to provide effective governance. Stability operations predominate in this phase, with many important activities being conducted by non-military agencies. During this phase, the ANP should have primary responsibility for security. Progress in building support for the Government requires protecting the local populace. Otherwise, people who do not believe they are secure from insurgent intimidation, coercion and reprisals will not risk overtly supporting counter-insurgent efforts.
During the ‘build’ phase, efforts will shift from counter-insurgency activities to community policing. The ANP will focus on traditional police roles of providing security for society and enforcing the rule of law, which will build public confidence.
The Afghan National Police Strategy sets out the strategic priorities for the Ministry of the Interior for the next five years. These priorities are based on the current assessment of the threat and national security requirements. The MOI reorganization, the National Police Plan, the MOI budget and the MOI force structure will be designed to ensure these priorities are achieved within the specified timelines.
This document will be reviewed annually and modifications made as necessary. Deviations from these priorities will only be carried out under direct authority of the Minister of the Interior and must be justified by a change in the current threat or national political situation.
Annex A. List of References:
The following documents were used develop this document.
1. Afghan Constitution.
2. Afghan National Security Policy (draft).
3. Afghan National Police Law.
4. Afghan National Threat Assessment.
5. Afghan National Police Strategic Planning Directive.
6. Minister of Interior’s Strategic Priorities and Vision.
Afghan Punishment Law.