Old-school hip hop describes the earliest commercially recorded hip hop music, and the music in the period preceding it from which it was directly descended . Old school hip hop is said to have ended around 1984 due to changes in both rapping technique and the accompanying music and rhythms.The image, styles and sounds of the old school were exemplified by figures like Afrika Bambaataa, The Sugarhill Gang, Grandmaster Flash, Rock Steady Crew, Spoonie Gee, Newcleus, Treacherous Three, Funky Four Plus One, Kurtis Blow, Busy Bee Starski, Lovebug Starski, The Cold Crush Brothers, Kool Moe Dee, Warp 9 and Fab Five Freddy. It is characterized by the simpler rapping techniques of the time and the general focus on party related subject matter. There were however, exceptions, such as Brother D's "How We Gonna Make the Black Nation Rise", and Kurtis Blow's "Hard Times", that explored socially relevant ideas. The release of The Message in 1982 by Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five marked the arrival of hip hop as social commentary, making it possible for future artist like Public Enemy and N.W.A to create an identity based on socially conscious themes.