The First Of March Organization was a clandestine movement created in Paraguay in the mid 70s to fight General Alfredo Stroessner’s dictatorship. It was the most serious attempt at creating an armed resistance to the dictator’s repressive government. Even though the organization was discovered before it was capable of attacking in the government in any way, the wave of repression which followed the discovery was enormous. During that period of repression, several leaders of the organization were captured, tortured and then executed, but the violence also extended to many regions of the country, affecting several agrarian movements and agrarian workers that had nothing to do with the OPM.Historical contextRuling the country since 1954, Stroessner had already avoided the few attempts of assassinate him in the past and had dealt with every single one of the opposition who represented a menace to him. During the 70’s, the country was in a period of economic growth, due to the construction of the hydroelectric Itaipu dam, on the Paraná River, on the border with Brazil, and also thanks to the exportation of soya and cotton.Da Costa, the leaderJuan Carlos Da Costa, who had been active in student movements and had collaborated in some literary magazines, was the main leader and the one who came up with the idea of creating a revolutionary clandestine movement. Da Costa was used to moving around, having visited Santiago de Chile and Corrientes where he met several leaders of the Argentine movement Montoneros. More than a thousand Paraguayans were studying in Corrientes at the time. Da Costa began making contact with some of the student’s leaders that were anxious to return to Paraguay to make the revolution through the means of violence due to the lack of political rights and the apathy of the traditional parties of the opposition.