Pedagogy is the discipline that deals with the theory and practice of education; it thus concerns the study and practice of how best to teach. Its aims range from the general to the narrower specifics of vocational education .For example, Paulo Freire referred to his method of teaching people as "critical pedagogy". In correlation with those instructive strategies, the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of instruction are harbored and governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experience, situation, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and teacher. One example would be the Socratic schools of thought. The teaching of adults, however, may be referred to as andragogy.HistoryJohann Friedrich Herbart (4 May 1776 – 14 August 1841) is the founding father of the conceptualization of pedagogy, or, the theory of education. Herbart's educational philosophy and pedagogy highlighted the correlation between personal development and the resulting benefits to society. In other words, Herbart proposed that humans become fulfilled once they establish themselves as productive citizens. Herbartianism refers to the movement underpinned by Herbart's theoretical perspectives. Referring to the teaching process, Herbart suggested 5 steps as crucial components. Specifically, these 5 steps include: preparation, presentation, association, generalization, and application. Herbart suggests that pedagogy relates to having assumptions as an educator and a specific set of abilities with a deliberate end goal in mind.